Introduction to C
Timeline of C
- C is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 to 1973 at AT & T (American Telegraph and telecommunication) Bell Labs.
- It is named C because its features are derived from the earlier language called B which is developed by Ken Thomson. According to Ken Thomson B was the stripped-down version of BCPL (Basic combined programming Language).
- In 1973 with the addition of struct type the c becomes powerful enough that the UNIX operating system was designed in C.
- This was one of the first operating system kernels implemented in a language other than assembly.
- In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie published the first edition of The C Programming Language.
- This book, known to C programmers as "K&R", served for many years as an informal specification of the language.
- The version of C that it describes is commonly referred to as K&R C.
- In 1989 the American National Standards Institute published a standard for C, generally called "ANSI C" or "C89".
- In the next year, the same version is approved by the International Organization for Standardization, This version is called C90.
- ISO released an extension to the internationalization support of the standard in 1995 and a revised standard (known as "C99") in 1999.
- The current version of the standard (now known as "C11") was approved in December of 2011.
Influence of C
The question is very simple before learning the C. That is why we learn C?
- C is very simple, small and fast.
- C is a programming language that has only 32 words with them you can build your own programming code.
- Compare to other programming languages the c program executes very fast.
- The most popular language derived from C Programming languages such as C++, Java, C#(C sharp), PHP, Objective-C and many more. So if you want to learn those languages the C provides the basic foundation.
- Most popular operating systems such as Windows, Unix, Linux are build in C.
- So sometimes people say that C is very old and now it is not used. Then i have to say, it is not the truth.
- The gaming environments are also written in C. More correctly we can say it has an indirect relationship with C.
- C Programming offers better interaction with hardware.
Types of programming languages
Computer programming language can be classified into two broad categories as follows:
- Machine oriented Langauge
- Binary Language/Machine Language
- Assembly Language
- Problem-Oriented Language
Machine Oriented Language
In the machine-oriented language, the program is written in the form in which machines can understand. Machine language is also known as low-level language.
This language provides better machine efficiency and fast execution of the program.
Machine oriented language again classified into two categories as follows...
As the name suggests in the binary language only two entities 0/1 (zero/one) are allowed. Where 0 and 1 can be understood in many ways by the computer.
As a computer is a digital machine consists of billions of transistors which can be thought like an electronic switch and have two states on/off. The 0 represents the off or false whereas 1 represents the on/true.
Because of the complexity of machine language, A new language is invented in which you can perform some useful tasks by using predefined commands or instructions.
For example, to perform addition, Command is ADD, same as for subtraction SUB, etc.
In this type of language, we need to focus on the solution to the problem.
These are more efficient than machine language because the program is written in general language English. These languages are also known as high-level language.
Where C Stands
C provides the facility of high-level programming as well as the low-level programming also.
So C is known as Middle-level language.